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Find out more about the variety of biomass resources we can convert into useful bioenergy and bioproducts, while taking into account the impact on climate, nature, jobs and cost.

Biomass is our only source of renewable carbon. It comes in many forms, with many different properties and we can make lots of different things from it. But what are the sustainability implications of the different choices we make?

Spin the coloured circles to build your pathway from feedstock through to output, understand the balance between different choices, and see how sustainable you can make your biorefinery.

You can even challenge your friends to better your sustainability score.


Each feedstock, conversion technology and output has a sustainability rating to demonstrate the potential sustainability benefits and sustainability risks for:

Climate - emissions and air quality

Nature - biodiversity and conservation

Jobs - socioeconomic considerations

Costs - economic factors

The sustainability rating has been assessed by Supergen Bioenergy Hub researchers to demonstrate the potential benefits and risks for each element you choose. The ratings do not take into account the unsustainable alternative of continuing to use fossil fuels.

Build your own biorefinery!


What biomass resource are you going to use?

Forest residues
Agricultural residues
Food / farm waste / manure / sewage
Municipal / household solid waste
Grassy and woody energy crops

Conversion Technology

How are you going to transform your biomass into energy and products?

Anaerobic digestion
Catalysis & fermentation


What will you make with your biomass?

Liquid fuels


Household waste

Conversion Technology




The Supergen Bioenergy Hub works with academia, industry, government and societal stakeholders to develop sustainable bioenergy systems that support the UK’s transition to an affordable, resilient, low-carbon energy future.

The Hub is funded jointly by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and is part of the wider Supergen Programme.

Special thanks to Andrew Welfle, Katie Chong, Mirjam Roeder, Dan Taylor and Catriona Heaton for their contributions.

Visit our bioenergy app to keep exploring.